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Presentations: Get and Use These Five Kinds of Evidence

Presentations: Get and Use These Five Kinds of Evidence

To support or back up your viewpoint or recommendations, use these 5 kinds of evidence:

Personal experience or story

Analogy

Judgment of Experts

Examples

Statistical Facts

 

 

Rerun from March 28, 2016

English Communication: Get More of Backstory for Those Unusual Spellings of English Words

English Communication: Get More of Backstory for Those Unusual Spellings of English Words

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Does understanding how changes came about in the English language make the pronunciation and spelling easier for you?  Yes!  It gives you the patterns for whole sets of words.

And, oh my! … the reasons for changes in the English language are fascinating.

Big change in a good number of English words started in the 11th century, when French became perceived to be the high-class or prestigious language.   That was when much of our culinary or cooking, legal, and poetic vocabularies became filled with French words.

Then came the Renaissance when scholars fell in love with the ancient classics.  They started borrowing large numbers of words.  Thus, many of our scientific and technical terms come from Latin and Greek.  Most of the Greek words came first through Latin, with Latin ideas of how to spell them.

Scholars decided that words already in the language should imitate their heritage of Latin and Greek.  They figured that “peple” originated with the Latin “populus.”  Thus the spelling should imitate the original word.  So an “o” was added to make it “people.”

In like manner  “det” got it’s “b” from “debitum”

Many words had letters added:  “indi(c)table,” “fau(l)t.”

Sometimes the words changed their pronunciation to match the spelling as in “fault.”

A note for you.  Sometimes the re-spellers were right about the origins of the word or etymology.  And sometimes they were wrong.  Ile became “isle” because the original word comes from “insula” (thus the sa).  However, “island” was not originally “insula.”  Instead it is from Old English “iegland.”

Be sure to watch our English Speech Tips videos and Accent Reduction Tip videos  for more English pronunciation and accent reduction exercise.

Check out our new advanced weekly speech tip program, our new subscription called ClearTalk Weekly, www.subscription.cleartalkmastery.com

 

 

Rerun from March 2, 2016

Successful Speaking Means You Must Provide Evidence for Your Viewpoint or Recommendations

Successful Speaking Means You Must Provide Evidence for Your Viewpoint or Recommendations

Evidence is what makes what you have to say interesting and believable. Evidence makes your presentation persuasive and memorable.

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Rerun from March 21, 2016

English Communication: Fascinating Reasons for Those Unusual Spellings for Some English Words

English Communication: Fascinating Reasons for Those Unusual Spellings for Some English Words

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You know that for as much as 70-75% of words in English, the pronunciation follows English language rules tied to the spelling of the word.

But what about the other words?  Why are they spelled the way they are spelled? Knowing the patterns will actually help you master the pronunciation and the spelling!

Here’s more of the reasons:

You know that people like to do things in easy ways.  Some people call that laziness.

People who investigate languages, linguists, call it “economy of effort”.  Speech sounds tend to change  to save effort for either the speaker (omitting sounds) or the listener (making sounds more distinct).

Influenced by Scandanavian and French languages, we eliminated troublesome bits of the complex Old English word inflections.  Thus a word like “hopian” got shortened to “hope.”  Over time, the “e” on the end stopped being said.

In more recent centuries, we simplified some sound combinations: “kn” became “n,” and “wr” became “r.”

We also stopped using – but still write – some sounds. The “kh” sound we spelled gh got changed to “f” as in laughter or just dropped, as in daughter.

That’s not all. Sometimes sounds change, and we don’t know why.  The most prominent example of this in English was the Great Vowel Shift.  From 1400s to about 1700, for reasons that are not clear, our long vowels all shifted pronunciation in our mouth. Before that time, “see” rhymed with “eh”; “boot” was pronounced like “boat”;  “out” sounded like “oot.”  Pronunciation changed, but spelling stayed the same.

Then there is the written English or English in print. Scribes and typesetters will also do things in the simplest way for them.  Scribes came from France and typesetters from the Netherlands and Belgium, where the first printing presses in Britain came from.  They did their written and printed English tasks to the habit they were used to.   The French scribes, with their Latin influence, took the word “cwen” and determined that what they heard was “queen.”  The Dutch typesetters felt that “gost” was missing something, so they added an “h” to make “ghost.”

Be sure to watch our English Speech Tips videos and Accent Reduction Tip videos  for more English pronunciation and accent reduction exercise.

Check out our new advanced weekly speech tip program, our new subscription called ClearTalk Weekly, www.subscription.cleartalkmastery.com

 

 

Rerun from Feb 24, 2016

Let Your Voice Ring Out During Presentations

Let Your Voice Ring Out During Presentations

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Greater volume means everyone can hear all your speech sounds and can understand all your words.

Wonderful is that when your voice rings out, the volume is a trigger mechanism.  The rest of your body will follow, and you’ll gesture more, emphasize more, and hand movements and facial expression will show your emotion.  And you will feel self-confidence when you speak in front of a room.

 

 

Rerun from March 14, 2016